Administrative development is considered an important matter for developing countries, especially since economic development requires an effective administrative apparatus to assist in preparing plans, then in putting them into implementation, and carrying out follow-up actions to implement plans, and amend them if the conditions of implementation so require. The attempts of many developing countries to achieve economic development have faltered due to the backwardness and weakness of their administrative apparatus, to the point where achieving administrative development is considered an imperative necessity for economic development.
Whereas, the management consultancy, its special governmental apparatus, and the administrative consultants play an effective and active role in the field of achieving administrative development, so we see the importance of writing about administrative development. In this chapter, we will address the issue of administrative development from multiple aspects, and we will start first by giving a quick idea about the concept of administrative backwardness and its manifestations in developing countries, then we will discuss the concept of administrative development, its methods and elements, and finally we will talk briefly about administrative development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The concept of administrative backwardness
There has been a significant development and expansion of state function since the 1930s in the last century, and in particular, after the Second World War. Its job is no longer limited to the old traditional jobs, which is to maintain security inside the country, defend it against its external invasion, and establish justice among citizens. But it developed, expanded, and included new jobs that were not among its previous jobs, such as economic and social jobs, so the state became involved in the economic field, taking measures that would address the economic recession and monetary inflation, and laying down plans to implement economic development programs and projects. The state also expanded its job in the social field, so it started providing health services, free education, and providing financial assistance to the poor classes, in order to raise the social, economic and social level, by setting plans and implementing economic and social development programs and projects, in order to achieve comprehensive development in the country.
The development in the state’s jobs followed, an evolution in administration, and an expansion in the administrative apparatus, so new departments and agencies were created, and the numbers of employees increased dramatically, to carry out the old jobs and new jobs entrusted to the state. However, the development in management has not kept pace with the development in state jobs, so management has not been able, in many countries of the world, to perform what has become required of it to do jobs, not in terms of quantity, or in terms of quality, so what happened in the so-called administrative backwardness, which is the essence of the problem That developing countries suffer from. It is worth noting here that the administration refers to all components of administrative work, including systems, individuals, methods and procedures, devices and machines.
The “administrative backwardness” seems clear in the administration’s inability, represented in the administrative organization, to translate the goals that make up the state’s function into policies, then to develop plans, programs and projects, and to implement them in a good and effective manner, in order to achieve comprehensive economic and social development in the country, and solve the problems of society. Administrative backwardness is noticed by comparing what is actually accomplished with what is required to be accomplished, and the larger the gap (between what is accomplished and what is required to be accomplished), the more the administrative backwardness appears, the default, and the administrative deficit dominating the state apparatus.
Manifestations of administrative backwardness in developing countries
There are common features and characteristics of administrative backwardness in developing countries, sometimes called administrative problems in developing countries. These problems differ from one country to another, depending on the different environment, and the political, social, and economic conditions in those countries, but most developing countries share the following problems:
1. The long, complex routine, which is the length and delay of working procedures for transactions
For a long time on the staff offices
2. The inflation of the administrative apparatus, which includes the public and private sectors, is the creation of large numbers of ministries, departments, and government institutions, and the creation of many administrative units therein.
3. Job inflation, as it is noticed that there are large numbers of employees in offices, who work only a few hours. (Job inflation often complicates procedures, and impedes the flow of transactions, because employees want to create jobs for themselves during the official working hours, so they increase the steps of transaction procedures).
4. Adherence to the professionalism of the law or the system, where many employees in developing countries resort to the literal application of laws, regulations, regulations, and instructions issued to them by the top management, and this behavior leads to harassment of citizens who obtain services from those governmental agencies, and from these Government employees.
5. Negligence and indifference by employees, where the phenomenon of negligence and indifference is observed among employees in many developing countries, and the reasons for the existence of this phenomenon are due to the stray salary that these employees receive, their laziness, and the weak oversight of their performance of their work.
6. The tendency towards stereotypes in systems and work methods, where many developing countries tend to apply uniform systems in financial affairs and personnel affairs in all their apparatuses, regardless of the differences in the nature of the work and its environment, between those agencies.
7. The absence of a coordination factor between the multiple government agencies in the country and between companies
That executes projects, which impedes the performance of government agencies, and delays the completion of projects by the executing companies.
8. Inelasticity, as some organizations in developing countries are characterized by inelasticity, as they do not accept change or renewal, and do not adapt to internal and external changes, and this leads to delay in doing business and lower productivity.
9. Introduced the organizations, as it is noticed that some organizations have become outdated and not in keeping with the spirit of the times, due to the long period of time passed on them since its establishment, and that no changes were made to them, neither in terms of organization, nor in terms of procedures, nor in terms of devices and equipment, which It leads to a decrease in the adequacy of the business.
10. Extravagance and the high economic cost of services or production. Waste and extravagance are among the observed phenomena in developing countries, as many of these countries expand spending on buildings, furniture, and the purchase of devices, cars, and other aspects of unnecessary spending (often). )
11. Favoritism and cronyism, embodied in appointing relatives and friends and promoting them to leadership positions, without looking at their competencies or their educational qualifications.
12. Weak administrative manners, widespread bribery, and unlawful gains at the expense of public office and the public interest.
13. Bring a strict confidentiality to administrative works, laws, regulations,
Regulations, instructions, and some ordinary work are considered confidential matters by some employees. Confidentiality has negative aspects.
The concept of administrative development
There are several terms in public administration books, including ((administrative reform)) ((administrative update)), ((and administrative development)), and (administrative development)), and some scholars and writers of administration try to distinguish between them, preferring to use the term without the other, I do not wish to participate in this philosophical and verbal debate about the name, but rather I see it transcending to substance and content, and therefore I will use for the purposes of this research one term (administrative development). To indicate the content of reform, modernization, and administrative development.
As for the concept of administrative development, one of the researchers in this field believes that the term administrative development appeared in the recent writings of public administration, as a partial result of the development efforts currently taking place in the countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is a term that expresses the efforts made by these countries in addressing the administrative problems they face in attempts to accelerate their agricultural, industrial, educational, and social progress, through the development of organizations, administrative systems, and bureaucratic practices to achieve this progress.
Another thinker, who is one of the officials and researchers in the public administration, believes that administrative development is the efforts that must be made continuously to develop the administrative apparatus in the state in an effort to raise the level of administrative capacity by setting appropriate organizational structures for development needs, simplifying work systems and procedures, and trying to develop behavior Positive among employees towards their devices, and those cooperating with them. And improving the work environment that affects the administrative apparatus and is affected by it. This is to achieve the goals of economic development plans with high efficiency and less costs. ”
The researcher provides an explanation of the concept of administrative development. He believes that administrative development is the comprehensive development of the administrative apparatus of the state, to raise the level of its administrative capabilities, to enable it to carry out state functions in general, and economic and social development functions in particular, with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness. Administrative development is achieved through the development of laws, regulations, and regulations, the development and development of managers and employees, the organizational development of government agencies, and the development of work systems and procedures, within an administrative theory and doctrine that is believed in, and applies to its principles, members of society.
Administrative development methods
Administrative development attempts are made by multiple methods, and each country chooses what it deems appropriate for its conditions from these methods. The most important methods of administrative development are the following:
1. The administrative head undertakes administrative development in his field of work:
Attention to administrative development is one of the chief duties of the chief administrative, as he is responsible for developing and developing the employees under his supervision, and for simplifying procedures in his administration. And he has the powers, usually, that he can perform these tasks, and if every administrative director fulfills his duties in this area fully, comprehensive administrative development will be achieved in a faster time, and at lower costs.
2. Forming temporary or permanent committees:
Forming temporary or permanent committees in some countries, and they are entrusted with the tasks of studying the administrative conditions in government agencies, and providing recommendations to develop these bodies. The committees are considered one of the common and important methods in achieving administrative development. The committees are made up of groups of experts who are tasked with studying the causes of shortcomings, corruption, and administrative backwardness and provide proposals and recommendations to address them.
3. Establishing specialized agencies for administrative development:
Most countries of the world create specialized agencies in matters of administrative development, and are entrusted with the tasks of studying the positions of ministries and government departments, and providing appropriate recommendations for their development, such as reorganizing those bodies. Simplification of procedures therein, training of employees, and from administrative development agencies, central departments for organization and administration, institutes of public administration and civil service bureaus ... and others (from agencies).
One of the best methods for establishing administrative development in developing countries is the method of establishing specialized bodies for administrative development.
Elements of administrative development
Administrative development is achieved in any country of the world, as a result of the meeting and interaction of several elements, and these elements together constitute a general framework, or model, that we believe contributes effectively to achieving administrative development. These elements help in overcoming the administrative problems facing the state’s administrative apparatus, and they also contribute to developing the apparatus so that it becomes highly efficient and effective.
As for the elements of administrative development, we see that it consists of the following:
2. Management theory ..
3. Develop laws, regulations and regulations.
4. Development and development of managers and employees.
5. Development of organizational structures.
6. Develop business procedures, models and devices.
The following is a brief summary of each element of administrative development.
Creed means what members of society believe in, and it shapes the general framework of values, behavior, and transactions. It is imperative to stress the importance of adhering to the faith, adhering to it, applying its principles, creating values and ethics, and reflecting the effects of the application on the behavior of individuals in society, especially on the behavior and behavior of state employees. There is no doubt that the Islamic Sharia is the glue, which constitutes the most important elements of administrative development, and a strong motivation for achieving administrative progress. Islam calls for honesty, honesty in treatment, justice among people, a jealousy over the public interest and a sense of responsibility and good morals. Hire it, for it is better for someone who hires the faithful to live.} God Almighty says: “God commands you to perform trusts to your family.”
And the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is no faith for those who do not have faithfulness to him."
If managers and employees adhere to the ethics of Islam, administrative corruption and many administrative problems are eliminated.
4. Development and development of managers and employees:
The development of the human element is considered the most important element of administrative development, because managers and employees are the ones who assume the task of carrying out the functions of the state, and success in achieving administrative development depends, to a large extent, on what is achieved in the success of the development of managers and employees.
The means of developing managers and employees include the following:
1. The right choice of managers and employees, as selection must be made on the basis of merit and depends on a description of job duties, qualifications and experience required for its holder
2. Ongoing training and development for them.
3. Providing scholarships opportunities for managers and employees to obtain educational qualifications
Suitable for their business.
4. Provide them with appropriate incentives.
5. Delegate the necessary powers to do business, for managers and employees (as
The frequent complaint is of lack or lack of powers).
6. Evaluating the performance of managers and employees, on scientific and objective grounds, and granting appropriate rewards and incentives, in light of the objective evaluation of them.
5. Development of organizational structures:
The organization is similar to the organism, it is in a state of continuous growth and movement, and with the passage of time, and with changing circumstances and conditions, its organizational structure becomes old, and there is a need to develop it to be able to carry out its activities efficiently and effectively, and the development of organizational structures is one of the basic elements of administrative development, but the development of structures Organizational alone is not enough, as the development of organizational structures must be accompanied by the development of procedures, the development of managers and employees, and the development of laws and regulations.
The process of developing organizational structures for government agencies includes defining the terms of reference for administrative units, clarifying their relationships, defining duties, responsibilities and powers for jobs and employees, mapping organizational organizations, and developing organizational guides for them.
It studies organizational structures, and makes proposals for its development, administrative consulting agencies in the country, whether they are government agencies for consultations or private sector organs for management consulting, such as companies and private management consulting offices.
6. Develop working procedures, models and devices:
Administrative development requires the development and simplification of work procedures, and the design of modern models, which help in the completion of work quickly and thoroughly, away from the long routine and its complexities, and administrative development requires the use of advanced devices and modern office machines, such as computers, film and card thumbnails (micro-film and microfiche) That would help in keeping information, and getting it quickly when needed, which helps in making decisions, and typewriters. And printing machines, and modern calculators, to speed up work, increase accuracy, and reduce